| From - God in Indian Philosophy|
| by S.P. Kanal|
In the pre-scientific period before 17 century AD science and philosophy
were not differentiated and men of genius concerned with understanding
the universe called philosophers did both activities together. They
formulated theories in Physics, biology, psychology as well as
speculated about the nature of universe, God and Soul. However their
primary concern was to examine fundamental beliefs about universe,
God and soul to see if they would stand logical scrutiny. The aim of
philosophy is to lift foundational beliefs and their institutional and / or
traditional level to a level of critical understanding. It tries to clarify them
and seeks to find out if they can be supported by reason. It is a method
of logical analysis of concepts and rational evaluation of beliefs. So
philosophers represent he reason at its best. With the invention of
scientific method in the 17th century, sciences have their own men of
genius in a separate category from philosophers, though both may join
hands at the highest conceptual level.
This is true of India, as it is of the rest of the human world. India
geniuses in pre-scientific period were Indian philosophers it is they who
build up systems of beliefs concerning universe, God and man. The
Indian geniuses is best represented by great thinkers of the schools of
Indian Philosophy - Buddhism, Carvaka, Jainism, Nyaya, Vaisesika,
Sankhya, Yoga, Mimamsa, Vedanta and Dev Darsana.
The ancient and medieval Indian Philosophy is divided in two groups -
Orthodox and heterodox. There are schools of Indian Philosophy which
accept the authority of Vedas. They are called Orthodox schools.
The six schools, namely, Nyaya, Vaisesika, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimamsa
and Vedanta, constitute the orthodox philosophy. There are other schools
of Indian philosophy which do not accept the authority of the vedas.
The are called heterodox schools. The three schools Buddhism, Carvaka
and Jainism constitute heterodox philosophy. These nine schools constitute
the Hindi geniuses up to the medieval period.
Except for Dev Darsana the rest of Indian philosophers in modern
period i.e. in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, only reinterpret
deepen or modify and reconstruct the vedanta metaphysics. Thus the
ten schools can be said to constitute the main types of Indian Philosophy up to date.